Prevalence and Contributing Factors of Gender-based Violence in SAARC Territories from 2010 to 2020: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Background: Gender-based violence is a key global concern due to the high prevalence and increased socio-economic burden for survivors. However, estimation of the prevalence of gender-based violence is difficult due to differences in study design and underreporting of abuse, especially in developing nations. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the prevalence of Gender-based violence among women living in the SAARC region.
Methods: The review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020219577). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed throughout the review. A thorough database search was conducted to identify studies done in the SAARC region. Title and abstract screening were done in Covidence, followed by a full-text review. Data were extracted and pooled for analysis using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subgroup analysis was done where possible.
Results: A total of 76 studies were included in the systematic review and metaanalysis. The community prevalence of domestic violence (DV) was 43.8% (95% CI, 35.1% - 52.9%), GBV prevalence was 34.9% (95% CI, 30.2% - 39.9%) and IPV prevalence was 39.8% (95% CI, 30.7% - 49.6%). GBV prevalence was highest in illiterate women [54.2% (95% CI, 46.8% - 61.5%)] and lowest among women with higher than secondary level education [23.1% (95% CI, 16.2% - 32.0%)]. The prevalence of GBV among women in pregnancy or postpartum period was 32.3% (95% CI, 25.1% - 40.4%, I2: 98.64), while among female sexual workers, the prevalence of Gender-based violence was 42.1% (95% CI, 28.1% - 57.5%, I2: 99.25).
Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of Gender-based violence in the SAARC region. Higher socioeconomic status and educational status are protective factors for Gender-based violence. However, more studies using validated tools are needed to understand the true extent of the problem.
Keywords: Domestic violence; gender-based violence; pregnancy; women.
Copyright (c) 2022 Ganesh Dangal, Niki Shrestha, Gayatri Khanal, Subarna Giri, Anup Ghimire , Shiva Aryal, Barun Babu Aryal, Anurag Adhikari, Ayusha Paudel, Pravash Budhathoki, Dhan Bahadur Shrestha
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council JNHRC allows to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of its articles and allow readers to use them for any other lawful purpose. Copyright is retained by author. The JNHRC work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).